What does agriculture mean
The etymological origin of the word Agriculture comes from the Latin, formed by the combination of two parts: the term agri comes from the Latin word “ager”, which is synonymous with “field of cultivation” and the concept of culture that can be interpreted as “cultivation”.
It can mean the cultivation of the earth, as well as the set of techniques and knowledge used in the cultivation of diction.
It refers to an activity that is devoted to the production of soil cultivation, crop development and harvesting, exploitation of forests and jungles (forestry), and livestock breeding and development.
Includes all work related to soil treatment and planting of vegetables.
All the activities that integrate this sector are based on the exploitation of the resources that the earth produces, favored by the action of the human being: vegetal foods like cereals, fruits, vegetables, cultivated grasses and fodder; Fibers used by the textile industry; Energy crops, among others.
It is one of the activities of the primary sector of each country, being the most important resource man for his subsistence.
It is an activity of great strategic importance as a fundamental pillar for self-sufficient development and the wealth of nations.
Some of the agricultural products are consumed directly and others are distributed in the industry for the production of derived foods, textile, chemical or manufacturing.
The realization of agriculture involves the transformation of the natural environment, in order to meet the needs of man. This characteristic is not different from the rest of the living beings.
History of agriculture
The cultivation of plants begins when men produce their vegetable foods through work and abandon the dependence of the simple collection of the vegetables that they found.
Agriculture is born when men begin to control the growth of some plant species.
The beginning of agriculture is located in the Neolithic period, when an evolution occurs in human societies, which change from harvesting, hunting and fishing as the main sustenance, to agriculture and livestock.
The first two plants cultivated in the time, were the wheat and the barley. Its origins are lost in the prehistory and its development was gestated in diverse cultures that practiced it independently.
Like the ones that emerged in the so-called Fertile Crescent (Middle East zone from Mesopotamia to Ancient Egypt), the pre-Columbian cultures of Central America, the culture originated by the Chinese East Asia, etc.
The oldest remains of cultivated plants emerge in the Near East around 9000 BC. In Asia, in Africa and in America the emergence of cultivated plants originated later and independently of the Near East.
However, in Europe, the introduction of agriculture manifests itself after 6000 BC. Due to a massive migration of populations from the Middle East.
In addition to these crops, man continues to use, as in the Paleolithic, the collection of other edible plants which, at that time, were used for complementary feeding, such as various fruits and roots.
There is a change, albeit gradual, in the economy of hunting and harvesting of agricultural products.
The reasons why agriculture was developed, could be caused by climatic changes towards temperate temperatures; Or because of scarcity of game or food for collection, as well as the desertification of large regions.
Agriculture and the dedication of women to intensive motherhood facilitated a greater population density than the one that existed when the economy depended on hunting and gathering due to the accessibility of food for a greater number of people.
With the use of agriculture, societies become more sedentary and land ownership ceases to be a right only on moving objects to also move to real estate, the division of labor is expanded and a more complex society with craft activities And specialized commercials.
Agricultural settlements and conflicts over the interpretation of property boundaries give place to the first legal and governmental systems.
The new situation of women, now confined to a domestic space, separates it from the economy and from social life, causing patriarchy.
The arrival of agriculture became a key step for the evolution of humanity.
It is important to note that, at this time, different techniques and systems were born and developed that became fundamental within agriculture.
As, for example, different fertilizer methods, oil presses and fallow system. A term this with which comes to express that a particular land is not cultivated during one or two cycles of vegetation so that, when it is re-planted, it is in the best possible condition.
Importance at present
First, agriculture provides natural goods in the form of food, or raw materials for the textile industry; But nothing else fulfills these primary functions.
Agricultural activities also have environmental consequences, as they build the landscape and provide environmental advantages in soil conservation, preserving biodiversity and ensuring a sustainable management of natural resources.
It is also one of the economic activities essential for the economic development of countries, since they promote the economic and social development of various rural areas.
Today, millions of people are supported by agriculture, as the latest reports prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, by promoting food security and by boosting the economies of developing countries. development.
Thus, agricultural policies have become vital tools for the development of countries in general, but especially for the least developed countries.
Because they are a primary source of food and employment for the population, it is considered to be one of the most effective means of reducing poverty in these areas.
In fact, the importance of agriculture can be said to lie not in one of its particular functions but lies in the development and conditioning of its three aspects, environmental, economic and social, so that these are dependent between yes.
La definición de agricultura (Spanish Version)