Logic is the science that is based on the laws, modalities and forms of scientific knowledge. It has a formal character that lacks content since it focuses on the study of valid alternatives of inference.
In other words, he proposes to analyze the methods and principles suitable to identify the correct reasoning against the one that is not.
The object of study of this science are the forms, structures or schemes of thought; Because of this, while other sciences focus on relationships in their element of study with respect to various phenomena, logic deals with relationships in themselves.
History and some types of Logic
The etymology of whose word comes from the Latin “logĭca”, which, in turn, derives from the Greek logikós (logos, “reason” or “study”).
The Greek philosopher Aristotle, according to historians, was a pioneer in using the term to name the proofs of arguments as indicators of truth within science, and in presenting the deduction as a valid argument.
However, it should be noted that, throughout history, there are many other figures that have contributed with their ideas and approaches in developing this science.
For example, during the Middle Ages, the role played by Averroes, the Cordovan philosopher who, among other things, declared that it was essential to study the logic of the ancient masters for later, to continue to “philosophize” in the right way.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries one of the people who most approached the notion of logic was Immanuel Kant.
The latter is considered as one of the most relevant and influential thinkers in history and stands out for the fact that in this subject, he established a new concept: transcendental logic.
A term with which that philosopher of Prussian origin tried to define the process by which the human being must make an investigation of what would come to be the pure concepts of categories of transcendental type or also of what is the exact understanding.
Hegel, Augustus De Morgan, John Venn or Gottlob Frege are other examples of authors who have excelled in the field of logic and especially the latter, who caused a real revolution with their theories.
Hence it is considered, like the mentioned Aristotle, like the most important logician of all the history. And it is who established the concepts of test, predicate logic or formal language.
Aristotle is considered as the father of formal logic. On the other hand, informal logic refers to the methodical examination of probable arguments from oratory, rhetoric and philosophy, and other sciences.
Its purpose is the recognition of paradoxes and fallacies, as well as being a useful resource to construct the discourses in a correct way.
Natural logic is the natural prowess to reason without appealing to science. The so-called blurred or diffuse logic, on the other hand, is one which contemplates a certain uncertainty when studying the truthful or false character of propositions, in the likeness of the reasoning proper to the human being.
On the other hand, the mathematical logic is characterized by using an artificial symbolic language and making an abstraction of the contents.
There are other types of logic, such as binary logic, which works with variables that only take two discrete values.
Relationship of logic with other sciences
For many, logic must be included in psychology.
Those who agree with this fact, consider that the science of the psychic, must understand everything related to the mind, and because logic studies the different forms of thought, it is stated that psychology must determine logic.
However, in contrast with both sciences, it can be concluded that psychology demonstrates a too dispersed knowledge about its object of study, insufficient to include logic within the simple structure in which psychological is encompassed mentally.
Likewise, logic does not seek to explain the processes that generate thoughts, but the correct or incorrect structure of certain types of thoughts.
From the nineteenth century, the tendency to consider logic as an important part of mathematics occurred, with a great rise, creating a stable relationship that bet on the definitive rupture of logic with philosophy.
For several logicians of the century before, the formal sciences must be firmly united.
On the other hand, the philosophers indicated an exaggerated emphasis on the formal by the mathematical logicians, an emphasis that strayed from the logic of its original character.
To this day, the debate continues in force. However, it is important to note that important advances in logic have arisen from the area of mathematics.
Languages are logical, because logic and grammar work ambiguously to decipher a sentence, decide whether the structure of the sentence is correct.
For this, we must study language and logic. The interaction between logic and grammar is like a romance between the two so that a language works well.
Due to the complexity of this subject, this example is cited to obtain more or less an idea of the fusion of these two sciences together.
If we accept that the philosophical knowledge is understood by the ontology, the gnoseology and the ethics, that is to say, “Being”, “knowing” and “acting”, logic an important part of knowing, because it studies the valid forms and laws of that knowledge.
The gnoseological or, also called theory of knowledge, seeks to study the correspondence or Conditioning between knowledge and its object, but it cannot be manifested if it does not previously involve logic, since this is the one who is going to prove the validity to all its conclusions.
La definición de lógica (Spanish version)